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Zone in with Zon--Broccoli and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Dr. Gerald Zon’s latest “Zone in with Zon” blog post, dated December 8, 2014, and published by TriLink BioTechnologies of San Diego, is entitled, “Broccoli May Reduce the Symptoms of Autism.” Although initially skeptical, Dr. Zon was persuaded to investigate the assertion because autism is such a common and difficult disorder and because the ABC News report (“Broccoli Sprout Extract May Help Curb Autism Symptoms”) referred to a supportive article in PNAS, a highly reputable scientific journal. In his blog, Dr. Zon first describes what autism is, saying that “autism is more accurately referred to as “autism spectrum disorder” (ASD) because it covers a wide range of complex neurodevelopment disorders, characterized by social impairments, communication difficulties, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Classical ASD is the most severe form of ASD, while other conditions along the spectrum include a milder form known as Asperger syndrome, as well as childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Although ASD varies significantly in character and severity, it occurs in all ethnic and socioeconomic groups and affects every age group. Experts estimate that 1 out of 68 persons have an ASD. Interestingly, males are four times more likely to have an ASD than females.” With regard to the causes of autism, Dr. Zon notes that scientists are still not sure what causes ASD, although there seems to be agreement that both genetics and environment play roles. He notes that “thankfully for many children, symptoms improve with treatment and with age; however, children whose language skills regress early in life—before the age of 3—appear to have a higher than normal risk of developing epilepsy or seizure-like brain activity.”

While discussing current research on ASD, Dr. Zon remarked that “I’m “big on biomarkers” for all diseases, and was pleased to find a promising press release about Stemina Biomarker Discovery receiving a $2.3 million investment from the Nancy Lurie Marks Family Foundation to support its clinical study of biomarkers in the blood of children with ASD. Using blood samples, Stemina was able to distinguish patients with autism from typically developing children with 81% accuracy, which I think is amazingly good given the complexity of ASD. Moreover, Stemina CEO Elizabeth Donley was quoted as saying “What is exciting about the data we are generating … is that we are beginning to identify metabolic subtypes in comparing one child with ASD to another. This has the potential to revolutionize the way children are diagnosed and treated based on the individual’s metabolism.”

Dr. Zon next turned to a discussion of the PNAS article (http://www.pnas.org/content/111/43/15550.abstract) on the advantages of broccoli for ASD individuals. In the PNAS article, researchers outline four premises that led them to test treatment of ADS with sulforaphane, which is an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli—as well as other cruciferous vegetables such as Brussels sprouts or cabbages—and has a remarkably simple molecular structure which is shown in Dr. Zon’s blog.

Dr. Zon sought out independent, unbiased authoritative comments on the article and its findings, and found relevant comments by Developmental Pediatrician Dr. Paul Wang, senior vice president for medical research at Autism Speaks® posted on Autism Speaks®. They are reproduced below:

Today, a lot of parents are talking about adding broccoli sprouts to their kid’s salads and sandwiches. Can this help? Hurt?

The amount of sulforaphane that was administered in the study is many times higher than you can reasonably get through food. Even sulforaphane-rich foods like brussels sprouts, broccoli and broccoli sprouts don’t have enough of the chemical to get you close. So eating these vegetables can’t be expected to improve autism symptoms. Within reason though, eating sulforaphane-rich vegetables is safe and healthy.

What about taking sulforaphane supplements or giving them to a child with autism? Are they safe?

I would caution against starting sulforaphane supplements at this time. First and foremost, this was a very small trial – much too small to assure safety. There was actually a potentially worrisome side effect in the study: Two of the 29 boys and men taking sulforaphane had seizures during the study. Both had a history of seizures in the past, so this could have been a coincidence. However, none of those taking the placebo, or dummy treatment, had seizures during the study. The study also showed a small increase in liver enzymes in study participants who received sulforaphane. None of these individuals showed any symptoms related to this side effect. However, it poses the possibility that sulforaphane may produce liver inflammation.It’s important to remember that anything powerful enough to exert biological effects – even beneficial effects – also has the potential to produce unwanted side effects. Just because sulforaphane is found in vegetables doesn’t mean it’s safe. There are many chemicals found in nature that can be toxic. This is particularly true when these chemicals are concentrated into a supplement. Much more study is needed to understand sulforaphane’s actions in the body – for good or bad.Also, though sulforaphane supplements have been on the market for some time, nutritional supplements don’t go through the kind of rigorous safety testing required for pharmaceutical medicines. So we don’t have good safety data on these products.

No doubt, some people will decide to take sulforaphane supplements based on this study’s findings, regardless of potential safety concerns. How can they select a reputable brand? What would be a safe and reasonable dose?

The brand of supplement used in the study was a patented, pharmaceutical-grade product not available for purchase over the counter. So there’s no way of using the study’s results to gauge the effectiveness or safe doses of the many related health-food products with lesser quality-control during manufacturing. In the study, the researchers used doses ranging from 50 to 150 µmol daily, depending on the participant’s weight. Their weights ranged from around 120 to 220 pounds.

So if an individual or parent decides to try these supplements – despite safety concerns – I would urge them to work closely with a physician to monitor possible reactions. This monitoring needs to include, but not be limited to, seizures. For example, blood work should probably be done to monitor liver enzyme levels.

In conclusion, based on the above comments of Dr. Wang, it would seem that broccoli does not offer benefit to ASD individuals at this time.

Dr. Zon is an eminent nucleic acid chemist and Director of Business Development at TriLink BioTechnologies in San Diego, California. The entirety of Dr. Zon’s latest blog, as well as previous blogs, can be viewed at the link below.

[Zon blog post]