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Archive - Oct 10, 2018

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Anti-Psychotic Drug May Be Effective Against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

A commonly used anti-psychotic drug could also be effective against triple-negative breast cancer, the form of the disease that is most difficult to treat, new research has found. The study, led by the University of Bradford in the UK, also showed that the drug, pimozide, has the potential to treat the most common type of lung cancer. Anti-psychotic drugs are known to have anti-cancer properties, with some studies, albeit inconclusive, showing a reduced incidence of cancer amongst people with schizophrenia. The new research, published online on October 9, 2018 in Oncotarget, is the first to identify how one of these drugs acts against triple-negative breast cancer, with the potential to be the first targeted treatment for the disease. Lead researcher, Professor Mohamed El-Tanani (photo) from the University of Bradford, said: "Triple-negative breast cancer has lower survival rates and increased risk of recurrence. It is the only type of breast cancer for which only limited targeted treatments are available. Our research has shown that pimozide could potentially fill this gap. And because this drug is already in clinical use, it could move quickly into clinical trials." The researchers, from the University of Bradford, Queen's University Belfast (Northern Ireland), and the University of Salamanca (Spain), tested pimozide in the laboratory on triple-negative breast cancer cells, non-small cell lung cancer cells, and normal breast cells. They found that, at the highest dosage used, up to 90 per cent of the cancer cells died following treatment with the drug, compared with only 5 per cent of the normal cells. The researchers then tested the drug on mice implanted with triple-negative breast cancer.

Specific Gene Types Driving Higher Frequency of Myeloma Diagnosis in African-Americans Identified By Mayo Clinic Researchers; DNA Sequencing Used to More Accurately Determine Racial Ancestry; Findings May Aid Insight into Best Forms of Therapy

Researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, have identified three specific gene types that account for a known two-to-three-fold increase in myeloma diagnoses among African-Americans. Researchers also demonstrated the ability to study race and racial admixture more accurately using DNA analysis. The findings were published online on October 10, 2018 in Blood Cancer Journal. The open-access article is titled “Differences in Genomic Abnormalities Among African Individuals with Monoclonal Gammopathies Using Calculated Ancestry.” "Myeloma is a serious blood cancer that occurs two to three times more often in African-Americans than Caucasians," says Vincent Rajkumar(photo), MD. a hematologist at the Mayo Clinic and senior author of the study. "We sought to identifying the mechanisms of this health disparity to help us better understand why myeloma occurs in the first place and provide insight into the best forms of therapy." Dr. Rajkumar and his colleagues studied 881 patients of various racial groups. Researchers found that the higher risk of myeloma known to occur in African-Americans was driven by three specific subtypes of the cancer characterized by the presence of genetic translocations in cancer cells. Translocations are genetic abnormalities in cancer cells caused by the rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes. The translocation researchers identified were t(11;14), t(14;16), and (t14;20). "Previous efforts to understand this disparity have relied on self-reported race rather than on genetic ancestry, which may have resulted in bias," explains Dr. Rajkumar. "A major new aspect of this study is that we identified the ancestry of each patient through DNA sequencing, which allowed us to determine ancestry more accurately." Dr.